Martin Luther (1483-1546AD)
From a portrait by Lucas Cranach the Elder, and engraved by Holl.
The Swiss Reformer, Ulrich Zwingli, said of Luther, "As far as I can judge, Luther is a very brave soldier of Christ, who examines the scriptures with a diligence which no one else has done for the last thousand years. I do not care if the papists call me a heretic as they do Luther. I say this, there has not existed any person since the commencement of the Romish pontificate, who has been so constant and immovable as Luther in his attacks on the pope. But to whom are we to look, as the cause of all this new light and new doctrine? To God or to Luther? Ask Luther himself, and I know he will answer that the work is of God."
Martin Luther burns Pope's Bull of Excommunication at 9.00 a.m., 10th December, 1520AD at Wittenberg.
The burning of the Popes Bull of Excommunication was the boldest and most eventful act of Luther. Viewed in itself, it might indeed have been only an act of fanaticism and folly, and proved a brutal thunderbolt. But it was preceded and followed by heroic acts of faith in pulling down an old church, and building up a new one. It defied the greatest power on earth, before which emperors, kings, and princes, and all the nations of Europe bowed in reverence and awe. It was the fiery signal of absolute and final separation from Rome, and destroyed the effect of future papal bulls upon one-half of Western Christendom. It emancipated Luther and the entire Protestant world from that authority, which . . . had become a fearful and intolerable tyranny over the intellect and conscience of men. [Philip Schaff D.D., "History of the Christian Church", 1888AD edition.]
Martin Luther at Worms in 1521AD.
Chancellor of Treves: "Will you, or will you not, retract?" Luther: ". . .I cannot submit my faith either to the pope or to the councils, because it is clear as the day that they have frequently erred and contradicted each other. Unless therefore I am convinced by the testimony of Scripture, or by the clearest reasoning, unless I am persuaded by means of the passages I have quoted, and unless they thus render my conscience bound by the Word of God, I cannot and I will not retract, for it is unsafe for a Christian to speak against his conscience. Here I stand, I can do no other: may God help me! Amen."
Luther incognito at the Wartburg under the name "Junker Georg." 1521AD.
After Lucas Cranach the Elder, in 1525AD.
LIFE OF LUTHER (4.8mb) by Julius Kostlin. First published 1883AD and translated from the German. (1905AD edition.)
1. The Ninety-Five Theses (48k) by Martin Luther (1888 Schaff edition).
3. On Christian Liberty. (107k) by Martin Luther (1883 edition).
5. On the Word of God. (77k) by Martin Luther (1857 edition).
6. The Papal Bull Decet Romanum (19k) against Luther. (1521).
7. Article on Luther. (38k) by Rev. James Gardner from Christian Cyclopaedia,1858ad.
8. Luther's Shorter Catechism (47k) (with Luther's preface) (1529)
10. The Youth, Conversion, and Early Labours of Luther. (264k) J. H. Merle d'Aubigne D.D. (1835 edition).
11. Protestantism in Germany to the Leipsic Disputation, 1519AD (1mb) by Rev. James Wylie (1878AD) pdf (494k) docx (164k)